Suffragists demonstrating against President Woodrow Wilson, Chicago, 1916
(Photo courtesy of Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division)

As Encyclopedia Virginia director Peter Hedlund recently noted here on the EV blog, we are committed to revising existing entries to eliminate racial bias and better reflect new historical understandings of key moments in Virginia history.

One such entry that needed revision was our entry on Woman Suffrage in Virginia, which failed to adequately note the contributions of Black women to the suffrage fight. As Brent Staples noted in the New York Times, white suffrage leaders intentionally obscured the contributions of Black women to the movement and “looked away from the racism that tightened its grip on the fight for the women’s vote in the years after the Civil War.” 

Nowhere was this more apparent than in Virginia, where white suffrage leaders, many of whom identified with the values of the progressive movement, found it politically expedient to distance themselves from Black women who supported suffrage. This had the effect of erasing the participation of women like Richmond banker and civic leader 老王 梯子Walker, who used her paper, the St. Luke Herald, to argue for woman suffrage, and organizations like the Virginia State Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs, which supported the vote for women, from the history of the suffrage fight. 

When anti-suffrage forces gained traction by arguing that expanding the vote to women, including Black women, would upset the carefully orchestrated suppression of the Black vote, leaders of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia turned to openly racist tactics to counter them. They argued that giving women the vote would actually “increase white supremacy” because Jim Crow measures like the poll tax would continue to effectively suppress the Black vote, male or female.

Today, thanks to the work of Brent Tarter, Marianne Julienne, and Barbara Batson, who just published 室内楼梯踏步用什么大理石好?楼梯踏步材料|尺寸详解 - 本地 ...:2021-9-19 · 现在很多小伙伴买房的时候,都比较喜欢复式的,复式装修的时候自然少不了楼梯的装修,就有业主想知道关于室内楼梯踏步的知识,今天,看网友想知道室内楼梯踏步用什么大理石好?于是,就室内楼梯踏步给大家整理了关于室内楼梯踏步材料和尺寸的内容,赶紧和沈阳装修公司来看看吧!, we have a fuller picture of the Black women involved in the woman suffrage movement in Virginia that helps correct the racial bias in our original entry.

We’re also able to provide a fuller picture of Black women’s participation in the historic 1913 suffrage march in Washington, DC, which included Lynchburg native Jimmie Bugg and Nellie May Quander, who was a descendant of two prominent free Black Virginia families–the Quanders and the Fords–that had been enslaved by George Washington and his brother’s family.

专升本有用吗 好考吗_学梯网:2021-6-12 · 专升本是很多人提升学历的方式,那么报考专升本文凭具体有哪些用处呢?考试难度怎么样呢?专升本文凭有用吗专升本考试还是较有难度的,获得专升本学历之后可以参加各种资格证书的考试、司法考试、公务员考试、评审职称、在职研究生的考试,都是提升自己自身价值的敲门砖。



The old Style Council song “Walls Come Tumbling Down” has been running through my head all week as we watch the commemorative landscape of Richmond being re-made in real time:… Read More»

Tackling the Roots of Racism in Virginia

Working on an encyclopedia day in and day out for more than a decade is rewarding and sometimes depressing. It’s rewarding to think that—if you are doing your job responsibly—the… Read More»


It was impossible not to feel the weight of history when Gov. Ralph Northam announced that the state-owned statue of Robert E. Lee that towers over Richmond, physically and emotionally,… Read More»

Echoes of Pandemics Past

When Encyclopedia Virginia was approached two years ago about adding an entry on the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in Virginia, director Peter Hedlund wasn’t sure it would be germane enough for our readership.… Read More»